Encyclopedia Article


Mexico is a federal republic that borders the United States to the south. The Mexican states of Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua, and Coahuila de Zaragoza share direct borders with the southwestern and western states of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas (respectively from west to east). Spaniards conquered and colonized the region beginning in the early 1500s. The national spoken language is Spanish, and the country boasts the largest population of Spanish speakers in the world. However, many tribal groups still exist and thrive in Mexico. Mexico was home to several very advanced Amerindian cultures including the Olmec, Toltec, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec.

Photo Credit: 

"Aquí estamos todos. Los de hoy y los de ayer, los ausentes y los presentes, los que viven y los que fueron, constituyendo una union sagrada que ningun," photograph, New Mexico Digital Collections.